Scope of Scientific Investigation in the Administration of Criminal Justice Systems
Scientific Investigation in the administration of criminal justice
Written By: Kanishka Sharma
Forensic substantiation is an order that functions within the parameters of the legal system within countries. The rationale being assistance in conducting criminal investigations and contributing to courts’ truthful information upon which they can rely in resolving criminal disputes. The use of technology in crime investigation has been a step forward in the process of progress of criminal justice.
What are forensic science and law?
It is the application to the science of the law and it is mostly used in criminal cases in which the forensic scientists deal with the examination and search of the physical samples and traces which is used to establish a suspect of causing a crime at the scene of the crime or the victim.
It also includes blood traces or body fluids, clothes and textures from clothing, hair, footwear and if any many more tools are used, etc. “Forensic science also includes anything that assists in the collection, preservation, and investigation for the purpose of evidence such as DNA identification, examination of structural design and to identify explosives and many more.”
Techniques used in forensic science
Narco- Analysis Test – Narcos is usually a state of unconsciousness induced by the state of mind also it is a state whereby a subject is put to sleep or put into a drowsy state by means of chemical injection and then interrogated while in this state. Importantly this method is used to utilize to add a memory of a witness.
Polygraphy or lie detector test- “Polygraphy” refers to “many writings’ which means a method in which psychological activities are recorded and it says “that when a person lies, he becomes nervous, which in turn causes mental excitation”. To cover up the excitement, adrenal glands stimulate to secrete Adrenalin, which when enters the bloodstream, sets up the blood pressure, rate of pulse, and respiration.
Brain Mapping or P300 Test – This term is also known as “Brain Mave Fingerprinting” and In this method, the first suspect is interviewed and then interrogated to find out if the person is carrying any vital or important information. “Sensors are attached to the head and the person is made to sit in front of a computer monitor and the suspect is shown and made to hear certain images and voice after that sensor is attached to head monitors and records the electrical activity and P300 waves in the brain, which is produced only if the suspect has a link with stimulus. The suspect is not asked any questions. This way the brain fingerprinting matches the information stored in the brain with that of the related crime and crime scene. If the person is innocent, no such P300 wave gets registered during the test.”
DNA Profiling – It is the most reliable mode of investigation in the whole forensic science. DNAs are highly effective as each individual’s DNA is unique except the twins and it is reliable because it cannot be tampered with. “This test can be used in various cases in order to ascertain the parentage of a child, recognize mutilated dead bodies, etc.”
Fingerprints – It is one of the most important and essential pieces of the investigation. Humans have a ridge of patterns on their fingertips and the patterns left by these substances, which collect along the ridges on fingers, make up the fingerprints required by the police at the scene of a crime.
Role of Forensic science in Investigation
“Forensic science plays a vital role in the criminal justice system by providing precise information through the analysis of physical evidence, the identity of the culprit through personal clues like fingerprint, footprints, blood drops or hair”. It links the criminal with the crime through objects left by him at the scene and with the victim or carried from the scene and the victim. As DNA technology entered forensic science, it provides a huge amount of information to the officers who are investigating and unable to find the suspect from the evidence he/she has left at the scene of the crime.
The legal provisions of forensic science are also in India. “It is seen in the case of Ramchandra Reddy and Ors. v. the State of Maharashtra, upheld the legality of the use of P300 or Brain finger-printing, lie detector test, and the use of narco analysis. The court upheld a special court order allowing SIT to conduct scientific tests on the accused in the fake stamp paper scam including the main accused, Abdul Karim Telgi. The verdict also maintained that the evidence procured under the effect of truth serum is also admissible”. The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 was amended in 2005 to enable the collection of a host of medical details from accused persons upon their arrest. Section 53 of the Criminal Procedure Code 1976 provides that upon arrest, an accused person may be subjected to a medical examination if there are “reasonable grounds for believing” that such examination will afford evidence as to the crime.
Advance technology has given a new view to Criminal Investigation and in the present Forensic science is playing an important role in the Crime and Criminal World. Forensic Science is growing tremendously with the years all with DNA technology, fingerprinting, lie detectors all the tools are used in the legal professionals which are easing the investigation and their main focus is to give stable and fair justice as the Forensic Evidence is more real than visual evidence.
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